Phytosanitary Procedures
for BMPs for Producing Clean Nursery Stock

3.  References

Anonymous.  2011. FAQ About Bleach Solutions. Available:

Atkinson, I. (ed.) 2000.  Hygiene and sanitation of working surfaces in the nursery.  The Nursery Papers 2000 (3): 1-2.  Available:

Baker, K.F. Editor. 1957. The U.C. System for Producing Healthy Container Grown Plants, Manual 23. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Station Extension Service.  Available:

Baker, K.F. (1970) Selective killing of soil microorganisms by aerated steam. In: Tousson, T.A.; Bega, R.V.; Nelson, P.E. (eds) Root Diseases and Soil-borne Pathogens. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. pp 234–239

Chin, R. 2004.  Hygiene in plant propagation.  Technical Nursery Papers 2004(11): 1-4.  Available:

Duff, J.D.; Connelly, M.I. 1993. Effect of solarisation using single and double layers of clear plastic mulch on Pythium, Phytophthora and Sclerotium species in a nursery potting mix.  Australasian Plant Pathology 22: 28-35

Griesbach, J.A.; Parke, J.L.; Chastagner, G.A.; Grünwald, N.J.; Aguirre, J. 2012. Safe procurement and production manual: a systems approach for the production of healthy nursery stock. Wilsonville, OR: Oregon Association of Nurseries. 98 p.  Available:

Pullman, G.S.; DeVay, J.E.; Garber, R.H. 1981.  Soil solarization and thermal death: A logarithmic relationship between time and temperature for four soilborne plant pathogens. Phytopathology 71:959-964.

Runia, W. T.; Amsing, J. J. 2001. Disinfection of recirculation water from closed cultivation systems by heat treatment. Acta Horticulturae 548: 215–222.

Smith, I. W.; Clements, P. A. [no date] Assessment of quaternary ammonium compounds as disinfectants for control of Phytophthora cinnamomi in washdown situations. Accessed 10/28/2019.

Stovold, G. 2000. Hygiene in the nursery - Disinfecting production surfaces; cement, gravel, capillary mats and sand beds.  The Nursery Papers 2000 (5): 1-4.  Available:

van Loenen, M.C.A; Turbett, Y.; Mullins;, C.E., Feilden, N.E.H.; Wilson, M.J.; Leifert, C.; Seel, W.E. 2003. Low temperature–short duration steaming of soil kills soil-borne pathogens, nematode pests and weeds. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109: 993–1002.